Jos Buttler's team will play three 50-over matches in the Caribbean next month followed by five Twenty20 internationals, just weeks after their bitterly disappointing World Cup campaign.
Tongue, 26, had continued his impressive breakthrough year on the international stage with a maiden white-ball call-up when the squads were announced earlier this month but he picked up an injury while on a training camp in the United Arab Emirates with the England Lions second-tier team.
Potts, 25, has made three ODI appearances, featuring in the series against Ireland in September.
Tongue's injury will rule him out of the whole tour of the West Indies, but no replacement for the T20 squad has been finalised yet.
The ODI series begins in Antigua on December 3.